I kid you not. I've heard this claim so many times I can hear it my dreams! But how much truth is there to this claim? Is positive reinforcement training truly so passive that it turns the cheek on all bad behaviors? Does using positive reinforcement make you a passive "softie"? Is "positive reinforcement training" even a real thing???
2) Invalid question
3) Invalid question
4) No. That's why #2 and #3 are invalid questions.
So, as it turns out, trainers who tout "positive-reinforcement-training" are not using ONLY positive reinforcement. They can't! They must use punishment to extinguish undesirable behaviors, like jumping, excessive barking, and inappropriate chewing. They are, in fact, using at least two different quadrants: Positive reinforcement and negative punishment.
The reality is that positive reinforcement and negative punishment need to work together. Instead of "ignoring bad behavior", negative reinforcement works by removing what the dog wants (in the case of jumping - his owner's attention) while also rewarding the dog for appropriate behavior (having all four paws on the ground or sitting politely). It's not about ignoring bad behavior. It's about making bad behavior fail and making good behavior succeed. After all, isn't that the crux of really great training? It's about setting the dog up to succeed and minimizing his chances of failure. Now, never mind the dog; that's a plan I'd want for myself!
Practice makes Progress!